概述

A brain tumor is a mass or growth of abnormal cells in your brain.

Many different types of brain tumors exist. Some brain tumors are non癌症ous (benign), 和 some brain tumors are 癌症ous (malignant). 脑瘤s can begin in your brain (primary brain tumors), or 癌症 can begin in other parts of your body 和 spread to your brain as secondary (metastatic) brain tumors.

How quickly a brain tumor grows can vary greatly. The growth rate as well as the location of a brain tumor determines how it will affect the function of your nervous system.

脑瘤 治疗 options depend on the type of brain tumor you have, as well as its size 和 location.

类型

症状

The signs 和 symptoms of a brain tumor vary greatly 和 depend on the brain tumor's size, 地理位置和增长率.

General signs 和 symptoms caused by brain tumors may include:

  • New onset or change in pattern of headaches
  • Headaches that gradually become more frequent 和 more severe
  • 无法解释的恶心或呕吐
  • Vision problems, such as blurred vision, double vision or loss of peripheral vision
  • Gradual loss of sensation or movement in an arm or a leg
  • 平衡的问题
  • 讲话困难
  • 感觉很累
  • 日常生活中的困惑
  • 很难做决定
  • Inability to follow simple comm和s
  • Personality or behavior changes
  • Seizures, especially in someone who doesn't have a history of seizures
  • 听力问题

什么时候去看医生

Make an appointment with your doctor if you have persistent signs 和 symptoms that concern you.

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原因

脑瘤s that begin in the brain

Primary brain tumors originate in the brain itself or in tissues close to it, such as in the brain-covering membranes (meninges), 颅神经, pituitary gl和 or pineal gl和.

Primary brain tumors begin when normal cells develop changes (mutations) in their DNA. A cell's DNA contains the instructions that tell a cell what to do. The mutations tell the cells to grow 和 divide rapidly 和 to continue living when healthy cells would die. The result is a mass of abnormal cells, which forms a tumor.

在成年人中, primary brain tumors are much less common than are secondary brain tumors, in which 癌症 begins elsewhere 和 spreads to the brain.

Many different types of primary brain tumors exist. Each gets its name from the type of cells involved. 例子包括:

  • 神经胶质瘤. These tumors begin in the brain or spinal cord 和 include astrocytomas, 瘤, 恶性胶质瘤, oligoastrocytomas 和 oligodendrogliomas.
  • 脑膜瘤. A meningioma is a tumor that arises from the membranes that surround your brain 和 spinal cord (meninges). Most meningiomas are non癌症ous.
  • 听神经瘤(神经鞘瘤). These are benign tumors that develop on the nerves that control balance 和 hearing leading from your inner ear to your brain.
  • 垂体腺瘤. These are tumors that develop in the pituitary gl和 at the base of the brain. These tumors can affect the pituitary hormones with effects throughout the body.
  • 成神经管细胞瘤. These 癌症ous brain tumors are most common in children, though they can occur at any age. A medulloblastoma starts in the lower back part of the brain 和 tends to spread through the spinal fluid.
  • 生殖细胞肿瘤. 生殖细胞肿瘤 may develop during childhood where the testicles or ovaries will form. But sometimes germ cell tumors affect other parts of the body, such as the brain.
  • 适应证. These rare tumors start near the brain's pituitary gl和, which secretes hormones that control many body functions. As the craniopharyngioma slowly grows, it can affect the pituitary gl和 和 other structures near the brain.

Cancer that begins elsewhere 和 spreads to the brain

Secondary (metastatic) brain tumors are tumors that result from 癌症 that starts elsewhere in your body 和 then spreads (metastasizes) to your brain.

Secondary brain tumors most often occur in people who have a history of 癌症. Rarely, a metastatic brain tumor may be the first sign of 癌症 that began elsewhere in your body.

在成年人中, secondary brain tumors are far more common than are primary brain tumors.

Any 癌症 can spread to the brain, but common types include:

  • 乳腺癌
  • 结肠癌
  • 肾癌
  • 肺癌
  • 黑素瘤

风险因素

In most people with primary brain tumors, the cause of the tumor isn't clear. But doctors have identified some factors that may increase your risk of a brain tumor.

危险因素包括:

  • 辐射. People who have been exposed to a type of radiation called ionizing radiation have an increased risk of brain tumor. Examples of ionizing radiation include radiation therapy used to treat 癌症 和 radiation exposure caused by atomic bombs.
  • 有脑瘤家族史. A small portion of brain tumors occurs in people with a family history of brain tumors or a family history of genetic syndromes that increase the risk of brain tumors.

脑瘤 care at 梅奥诊所

8月. 06, 2021
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